Laws against copy

   In the signatory countries of the Universal Copyright Convention, "Intellectual Works" (books, musical scores, drawings, etc) are protected against being copied. In France, the law protects not only the text (textual copy) but also the ideas. A film whose idea (subject) "coincides" with a book written a few years earlier can be considered as a reproduction, and thus a copy, of this book.

     Article Art. L 122-4. of Intellectual Property Act states: "Any total or partial representation or reproduction, without the consent of the author or eligible parties, is illegal. This also applies to the translation, adaptation, transformation, arrangement or reproduction by an art or any kind of process"

     The copyright indicates who owns the rights to the book and guarantees the author's copyright and protects it world-wide. In general, the copyright is in the editor's name. Under the terms of article 3, subparagraph 1 of the Universal Copyright Convention of 1952, revised in Paris on July 24th 1971, an author wanting to guarantee the protection of his work in foreign countries, not recognizing the principle of the Bern Convention (according to which "any publication has a right to protection"), must register on all copies of his books

        . the symbol ©

        . followed by the name of the copyright holder,

        . and the year the book was first published. For example:

© Aline Elorn. 1997

     This notice is not necessear for unpublished works. For works first published on and after March 1, 1989, use of the copyright notice is optional.

     Using this symbol can, at an appropriate time, be advantageous in countries having adhered to the Universal Copyright Convention.

     One can also add : "All rights reserved for all countries", but this is not obligatory.

     In practice, this formality is almost only of interest when protecting works on the territory of the United States territory. For any further information concerning copyright in the United States contact :

Library of Congress

Copyright Office

101 Independance Avenue, SE

Washington, DC 20559